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Bioavailability of Effervescent Products

The first subject is to understand that “natural carbonation” is the build up of natural gasses during fermentation. “Forced carbonation” is when carbon dioxide is added to the substance under pressure.

MEASURING CARBONATION
The quality of carbonated beverages including soft drinks, seltzer and beer is affected by the amount of dissolved CO2 (the gas that causes carbonation) and the amount of carbonic acid in the drink. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has an infrared absorption wavelength of 4.27 micrometers and can be measured online using an infrared carbonation sensor. This is an improvement to the traditional inferred measurement method using temperature and pressure for Henry’s Law Coefficients because this methodology is influenced by changes in density and alcohol content. Infrared measurements are not affected by changes in density or alcohol content because they are actually measuring the CO2 molecule using the Beer-Lambert Law. The amount of carbonation in a beverage is measured in Volumes or grams/liter. This is because introducing CO2 into a beverage will change its weight. An easy experiment to prove this is to take a seltzer bottle and weigh it. Carefully remove the top slowly so no liquid escapes from the bottle as the gas escapes the weight of the bottle of seltzer will go down. Shaking the bottle while closed and then opening it to remove more CO2 will increase this effect.

In many consumer beverages such as soft drinks, carbonation is used to give "bite." The fizzy taste can be caused by dilute carbonic acid inducing a slight burning sensation, but is never caused by the presence of bubbles. This can be shown by drinking a fizzy drink in a hyperbaric chamber at the same pressure as the beverage. This can give much the same taste as at sea level. In any case, the bubbles will be completely absent during this experience. If you were to taste a flat soda at this pressure, you might experience a much different flavor profile as carbonic acid has a low vapor pressure, and the only "bite" would come from other acids in the soda. However, in the case of Pepsi and Coca-Cola, much of the perceived bite is due to phosphoric acid, an acid not known for fizz or changes in flavor profile due to changes in pressure.
Carbonation is sometimes used for reasons other than taste. For example, carbonation reduces the availability of free oxygen in a soda, and it can reduce the pH of a liquid by a small amount. Some carpet cleaning solutions are carbonated in order to more effectively dissolve organic material.

Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution. The term is used to describe the foaming or fizzing that results from a release of gas. In the lab, a common example of effervescence is the addition of hydrochloric acid to a block of limestone. If a few pieces of marble or an antacid tablet are put in hydrochloric acid in a test tube fitted with a cork, effervescence of carbon dioxide can be witnessed.
CaCO3 + 2HCl -- H2CO3 + CaCl2
The carbonic acid formed rapidly decomposes into water and carbon dioxide gas, thus the reaction becomes:
CaCO3 + 2HCl --- H2O + CO2 + Ca Cl2
Another chemical reaction that produces gas is the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with acid, for example in Alka-Seltzer brand tablets, used to treat stomach indigestion. The essential chemical reaction is:
Citric Acid + Sodium Bicarbonate  H2O +Carbon Dioxide + Sodium Citrate
C6H8O7 + 3NaHCO3  3H2O + 3CO2 + Na3C6H5O7
The process of carbon dioxide bubbling out of solution is generally represented by the following reaction, where a pressurized dilute solution of carbonic acid in water releases gaseous carbon dioxide at decompression:
H2CO3  H2O + CO2
In simple terms, it is the result of the chemical reaction occurring in the liquid, which produces a gaseous product.

THE AMOUNT OF CARBONATION IN A BEVERAGE IS MEASURED IN “VOLUMES”, OR “GRAMS/LITER”, BECAUSE INTRODUCING CO2 INTO A BEVERAGE CHANGES ITS WEIGHT!

Have you ever tried the effervescent variety of vitamins? This great new way of taking vitamins adds an exciting fizz to the dull routine of popping vitamin pills. Pour a packet of vitamin powder into a glass, add water, and enjoy a delicious dose of nutrition! This novel concept of taking vitamins is already a craze in Europe and, going by statistics, it is gaining popularity in the American health industry. A report from the Nutrition Business Journal states that about fifteen percent of supplements sold in the United States between 2005 and 2008 were effervescent products.



What are the advantages of taking effervescent vitamins?
Ingredients are Fully Bio-available
One of the most important advantages is that the ingredients in effervescent formulations are fully bio-available, as compared to synthetic vitamins which are said to be only 50%-70% bio-available depending on various factors. The rest is simply passed through your body. In contrast, all the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients in effervescent technology are already in a form that can be quickly digested upon ingestion. This allows for fully absorption. This is especially critical for the aged and those with weak digestive systems. 

The intrinsic bioavailability of effervescent vitamins has a distinct advantage over tablet form synthetic vitamins. Tablets need to be broken down into smaller pieces within in the digestive system in order for them to be absorbed through the intestinal lining. In an effervescent vitamin the ingredients are already in a bioactive state and absorption of these nutrients into your system is absolute. 



The Presence of Carbon Dioxide Enhances Absorption
The permeability of the nutrients is actually enhanced by the presence of carbon dioxide. The chemical combination of the vitamin powder when mixed in water results in the effervescence of carbon dioxide. This chemical equation alters the paracellular pathway in the intestines and helps nutrients to be more quickly absorbed through the intestinal lining. It does this by reducing the thickness of the mucus layer lining the intestinal wall. Loosening the junctions between cells causes structural change in the cell membrane allowing it to better absorb and pass hydrophilic substances. Eichmann & Robinson offer positive research on this subject and have demonstrated the potential of carbon dioxide in promoting the transportation and increasing the permeability of cellular membranes in the absorption of dietary supplements.1



Creates a Buffered Solution
Effervescent vitamins form a buffered solution. When mixed in water it forms the perfect “pH” – the perfect ratio of acid and alkaline, so that nutrients can be easily absorbed. For instance, calcium carbonate tablets or liquid can pass un-dissolved in a stomach that is more alkaline. Calcium carbonate needs an acidic pH to be dissolved. Those with a more alkaline pH are not able to dissolve calcium carbonate and it passes through the digestive system without being absorbed. Effervescent formulas provide a balanced pH balance when mixed with water. Thus when the effervescent vitamin drink enters the digestive system it optimizes the stomach pH buffering it to create the perfect pH for the absorption of all kinds of nutrients. This is also true for amino acids, which can be denatured in a low pH environment. 



Consistent and Reliable Dose
Effervescent vitamins are more stable than their liquid or tablet counterparts. This means the formulation gives you a consistent and reliable dose each time you take it. As against tablets or liquid forms of vitamins, the ingredients in effervescent forms are already evenly distributed in the solution and localized concentrations cannot occur. 



More Active Nutrients
Effervescent technology also increases the ability to package a higher volume of active ingredients as compared to tablets. This allows larger amounts of multiple minerals and vitamins to be put together for easier absorption.

Effervescent Vitamins are Easier to Swallow
This is particularly advantageous to the elderly who may find it difficult to swallow tablets. It is also an advantage to people who take a number of tablets. Taking an effervescent vitamin can be a relief to such people and requires the same amount of water as would be required for swallowing a tablet. 



Gentle Action, Less Stomach Upsets
Effervescent form of supplementation is known to be gentle on the digestive tract, causing less stomach and esophageal disturbances, additionally, they are Convenient to Carry. It is a known fact that liquid vitamins are easier to absorb. But liquid form of vitamins can be difficult to carry around. Effervescent vitamins come in a tablet or powder in packets. These are easy to carry with you, and easier to travel with. 



No Chemical Binding Agents
A powdered effervescent form of vitamin is better than an effervescent tablet. Tablets need chemical binding agent while powders do not. 



Great Taste!
They also taste a lot better and are just more fun to take than the conventional method of vitamin supplementation.

Consistent and Reliable Dose
Effervescent vitamins are more stable than their liquid or tablet counterparts. This means the formulation gives you a consistent and reliable dose each time you take it. As against tablets or liquid forms of vitamins, the ingredients in effervescent forms are already evenly distributed in the solution and localized concentrations cannot occur.

More Active Nutrients
Effervescent technology also increases the ability to package a higher volume of active ingredients as compared to tablets. This allows larger amounts of multiple minerals and vitamins to be put together for easier absorption.

VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS: Tablets, Liquids, or Effervescent – Which Form is Best?
Many studies have demonstrated that effervescent tablets and powders enhance absorption of a number of active ingredients, such as disulfiram and caffeine. That’s because the carbon dioxide created by the effervescent reaction can induce enhanced active-ingredient permeability due to an alteration of the paracellular pathway. It is theorized that the carbon dioxide alters (widens) the intercellular space between cells, which leads to greater absorption of active ingredients (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic).
Vitamin supplements are available in tablets, liquids and effervescent forms. Quality manufacturing and bioavailability of nutrients determines which form is the best.

There are a variety of functional foods available to the American consumer. Many popular food items, such as cereals, fruit juices and milk, are fortified with vitamins and minerals. We even have a choice of beta-sitosterol-fortified butter and margarine. In spite of the popularity of functional foods, almost 70% of our population takes some form of vitamin supplement.
Gone are the days when popping a daily vitamin tablet was the only means to supplement your diet. As more options become available, consumers are often left wondering which vitamin supplement form is the best.
Vitamin Tablets
Tablets are the most cost effective form of vitamins.
A disadvantage in tablet forms of vitamins is that they usually contain more chemicals in the form of preservatives, binding and coating agents. A few of these can actually hinder the absorption of nutrients in the body. The presence of chemicals in tablets can also increase the risk of allergies to those who are allergy-sensitive.
The bioavailability of tablet vitamins depends on the quality of manufacturing. Poor quality manufacturing of vitamin tablets renders many of its nutrients ineffective. Dietary supplements are not subject to strict regulations from FDA and hence vitamin supplement labels and actual potency of vitamins may greatly differ. The poorer the quality the less bio-available it is to the body. Much research is required for formulating vitamin tablets in order to ensure that proper disintegration and absorption of nutrients will take place within the digestive system. Only high quality vitamin tablet manufacturers engage in such research. Some high quality tablets will contain cellulose beadlets. These expand in the stomach and help to disintegrate the tablet, allowing for absorption of most nutrients. Tablets can be less effective for people with digestive problems, such as the elderly, who also may have a difficult time swallowing tablets. Compared to other forms of vitamins, vitamin tablets have the least bioavailability.
Powdered Effervescent Vitamins
These are available in convenient, easy-to-use pouches each containing an individual dosage. When the powder is mixed in water, it turns into an effervescent drink. The presence of carbon dioxide enhances the absorption of nutrients. It does this by changing the structure of the cellular membrane allowing it to more readily absorb and pass nutrients through the intestinal lining. Effervescence allows 100% bioavailability.
An effervescence solution also creates the right “pH” level in the digestive system. This is especially useful in the assimilation of certain nutrients like calcium carbonate and amino acids, which need a balanced pH environment for its absorption. Effervescent technology is gentle on the digestive system causing less stomach disturbances. Of course, effervescent powders come in all kinds of flavors and are portable so you can keep some with you at all times for a quick boost of nutrients.
It is also good to remember that vitamins need other nutrients such as minerals, amino acids, antioxidants and certain enzymes for their assimilation in the body. All of these elementals work best together, enhancing each other's performance, producing a synergy of benefits. When choosing a vitamin supplement, choose one that has a combination of nutrients.

Eating a balanced diet, at regular times each day, and having a routine exercise regimen will help you maintain good health. Doctors recommend that you eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, including green vegetables like broccoli. A good vitamin supplement will aid in filling the gap in your diet. Vitamins are required to help your body perform normal metabolic functions, aid in growth and repair of cells, and help maintain overall health.

Another benefit this delivery system offers is that effervescent products allow for extremely efficient bioavailability for active ingredients. It is thought that the carbon dioxide produced by an effervescent reaction alters the paracellular pathway to increase absorption of vitamins, minerals and pharmaceutically active ingredients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Additionally, buffering in the stomach causes the stomach to empty more quickly and allows for quicker absorption of active ingredients into the bloodstream.

Some active ingredients are sensitive to moisture or may be pH sensitive. With an effervescent dose, the manufacturing is done under extremely low-moisture conditions and packaged in a way that is either self-desiccating or completely moisture-proof until the product is used. With regard to pH sensitivity, effervescent products are particularly well suited to amino acids or other active ingredients, which can be denatured in the low pH environment of the stomach.
Positioning an effervescent product as a “functional beverage” option also takes it out of the competitive realm of daily dietary supplements. Delivering nutritional ingredients in an effervescent that can be taken anywhere and with virtually any liquid can be much easier for people who have difficulty swallowing large pills, while still helping them meet their supplement needs. In addition, it is possible to create flavors that mask poor tasting vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts. This allows for the creation of a pleasing tasting beverage.

As people become more comfortable with the effervescent delivery system, and as companies increasingly understand the benefits of an extremely convenient, portable and easy-to- use package that delivers a positive, refreshing and beneficial experience, that upward trend will only continue.

REFERENCES
1. Yassin, A.E.B. Optimization of the biological avail- ability of certain medicament. 1996: Ph.D. dissertation. Al-Azhar University.

2. Anderson, M.P. Lack of bioequivalence between disulfiram formulations. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. Suppl. 1992: 86: 31-35.W.

3. Nuernberg, B. and Brune, K. Buffering the stomach content enhances the absorption of diflunisal in man. Biopharm. Drug Disp. 1989: 10: 377-387.

4. Hespe, W., Vershoor, J.S.C., and Olthoff, M. Bioavailability of new formulations of amoxicillin in rela- tion to its absorption kinetics. Arzneim. Forsch. 1987: 37: 372-375.

5. Eichman, J.D. and Robinson, J.R. Mechanistic stud- ies on effervescent-induced permeability enhancement. Pharmaceutical Research. 1998: 15(6): 925-930.

6. Eichman, J.D. Mechanistic studies on effervescent- induced permeability enhancement. 1997: Ph.D disserta- tion. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
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57. Nuernberg, B. and Brune, K. Buffering the stomach content enhances the absorption of diflunisal in man. Biopharm. Drug Disp. 1989: 10: 377-387.

58. Hespe, W., Vershoor, J.S.C., and Olthoff, M. Bioavailability of new formulations of amoxicillin in rela- tion to its absorption kinetics. Arzneim. Forsch. 1987: 37: 372-375.

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60. Eichman, J.D. Mechanistic studies on effervescent- induced permeability enhancement. 1997: Ph.D disserta- tion. University of Wisconsin-Madison.

 

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